By Limor Shifman
In December 2012, the exuberant video "Gangnam type" turned the 1st YouTube clip to be seen a couple of billion instances. millions of its audience spoke back via growing and posting their very own diversifications of the video--"Mitt Romney Style," "NASA Johnson Style," "Egyptian Style," and so forth. "Gangnam kind" (and its attendant parodies, imitations, and derivations) is likely one of the most renowned examples of a web meme: a bit of electronic content material that spreads fast round the net in quite a few iterations and turns into a shared cultural event. during this e-book, Limor Shifman investigates web memes and what they let us know approximately electronic tradition.
Shifman discusses a chain of recognized web memes -- together with "Leave Britney Alone," the pepper-spraying cop, LOLCats, Scumbag Steve, and Occupy Wall Street's "We Are the ninety nine Percent." She bargains a unique definition of web memes: electronic content material devices with universal features, created with expertise of one another, and circulated, imitated, and reworked through the net by way of many clients. She differentiates memes from virals; analyzes what makes memes and virals profitable; describes well known meme genres; discusses memes as new modes of political participation in democratic and nondemocratic regimes; and examines memes as brokers of globalization.
Memes, Shifman argues, encapsulate essentially the most basic facets of the web generally and of the participatory net 2.0 tradition specifically. net memes could be enjoyable, yet during this e-book Limor Shifman makes a compelling argument for taking them seriously.
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Extra resources for Memes in Digital Culture (The MIT Press Essential Knowledge series)
Whilst Memes pass Digital 25 9429. indb 25 8/19/13 4:03 PM war, the doodle popped up in nearly any that you can think of house in the achieve of Allied infantrymen, who then introduced it again to the U.S. (and different countries). After the struggle, Kilroy used to be reincarnated in city graffiti, in addition to in numerous pop-culture artifacts. Henrik Bjarneskans, Bjarne Grønnevik, and Anders Sandberg have analyzed Kilroy’s memetic good fortune. four as well as the truth that the message was once uncomplicated and will therefore be simply reproduced, it additionally tended to seem in public locations, which ensured that many of us, or “potential hosts” who may additional diffuse the meme, spotted it. That the slogan’s “real” which means was once mysterious and open to interpretation was once additionally a bonus, because it allowed every person to endow it along with his or her personal most well-liked which means. in addition, this loss of visible which means made the meme not easy to contradict and, whilst, more desirable people’s engagement with it as they attempted to resolve the secret. while trying to decipher what prompted humans to copy the meme without direct incentive within the kind of peer-reaction, Bjarneskans and his colleagues postulate that individuals strove to affix a circle of people who “shared the shaggy dog story. ” during this means, the act of reproducing the meme created an invisible bond with a group of “Kilroy writers,” or a feeling of club in a privileged and determine four “Kilroy used to be right here. ” resource: http://commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/ Category:Kilroy_was_here. 26 Chapter three 9429. indb 26 8/19/13 4:03 PM 9429. indb 27 8/19/13 4:03 PM mysterious brotherhood. firstly look, “Kilroy used to be the following” turns out unusually just like a few modern net memes. for example, it stocks many beneficial properties with “planking,” which essentially consists of humans mendacity face down with their hands at their aspects in public areas (see determine 5), or “241543903/Heads in Freezers,” during which individuals are photographed with their heads in a freezer and publish the images tagged with the quantity 241543903, permitting effortless detection through se's. Like “Kilroy was once Here,” those circumstances contain weird and wonderful, bizarre, and unforeseen juxtapositions. additionally, in all 3 memes, humans imitate a definite motion in a special environment and shape a bond with these “in the recognize. ” and eventually, they're all imbedded within the “real” (that is, open air of the net) international. but past those commonalities, conventional and Internet-based memes fluctuate in numerous basic methods. the 1st contrast pertains to contributors’ know-how of the general meme-scape. within the pre-Internet period, each one person was once uncovered to a truly restricted variety of memetic manifestations—a individual may need visible the Kilroy graffiti a dozen instances in his or her lifetime, yet not likely even more than that. because the major realm within which the meme existed was once the streets, its precise importance was once determine five The planking meme. assets: http://ourtwobits. com/ a-perspective-on-planking-the-evolution-of-a-revolution/; http://www . squidoo. com/planking-whats-wrong-with-people.