Toxicology

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"This is a wonderful assessment of pharmacology for the coed who's seeking to determine his/her strengths and weaknesses ahead of the exam." -- Alexis Dallara, Fourth 12 months clinical scholar, SUNY Downstate university of medication

"The great thing about this article is that it contains crucial pharmacology strategies in a compact e-book that may be fast referenced and browse a number of occasions through the process a student's experiences. i might certainly suggest it to any clinical student." -- Rosalyn Pham, Fourth 12 months clinical scholar, collage of Washington scientific university

Deja overview: Pharmacology boils down your coursework to simply the severe thoughts you want to comprehend for examination good fortune. This unbeatable consultant encompasses a quick-read, two-column "flashcard" Q&A format--specifically designed that can assist you keep in mind a large number of pertinent details in the slightest degree period of time attainable. The structure enables you to zero-in on simply the proper solutions to advertise reminiscence retention and get the main from your research time. nice for final minute evaluate of high-yield evidence, Deja Review presents an easy manner so that you can check your strengths and weaknesses so that you can excel in your path checks and the USMLE Step 1.

  • Active remember questions let you understand, not only memorize, the content material
  • Clinical vignettes on the finish of chapters organize you for board-style questions
  • Portable measurement for learn at the go--fits on your white coat pocket
  • Bookmark incorporated to steer you thru easy-to-use flashcard presentation

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Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) that has the next ratio of antifactor Xa to antifactor Ha job as opposed to unfractionated heparin (UFH) what's the half-life of LMWH? to 4 instances that of UFH Does PTT have to be monitored in sufferers on LMWH treatment? No What man made pentasaccharide factors an antithrombin-III-mediated selective inhibition of issue Xa? Fondaparinux Which method of the clotting cascade is principally tormented by warfarin? Extrinsic method Which laboratory checks are used to observe warfarin remedy? Prothrombin time (PT); foreign normalized ratio (INR) → healing INR degrees are among 2 and three How does warfarin paintings as an anticoagulant? Inhibits synthesis of vitamin-K-dependent clotting elements II, VII, IX, and X through inhibition of nutrition okay epoxide reductase; additionally inhibits synthesis of protein C and protein S what's the onset of motion of warfarin? 36 to seventy two hours (anticoagulant motion) How lengthy after initiation of warfarin treatment is the total healing influence obvious? five to 7 days (antithrombotic motion) Acute alcohol intoxication does what to warfarin metabolism? Inhibits warfarin metabolism, thereby expanding warfarin blood degrees persistent alcohol use does what to warfarin metabolism? Induces warfarin metabolism, thereby lowering warfarin blood degrees What occurs to the INR of warfarin sufferers who start thyroid substitute drugs? INR raises; thyroid hormone raises the metabolism of clotting elements, thereby potentiating the consequences of warfarin What occurs to the INR of warfarin sufferers who start antimicrobial treatment with sulfonamides? INR raises; sulfonamides inhibit CYP-450 2C9, thereby expanding warfarin degrees Does warfarin move the placental barrier? certain (contraindicated in pregnancy); warfarin is teratogenic What are the hostile results of warfarin? Bleeding; drug-drug interactions; pores and skin necrosis (seen in the first few days of warfarin remedy and is secondary to reduced protein C levels); “purple feet syndrome” (caused through ldl cholesterol microembolization) What can be utilized to counteract the results of warfarin? diet okay (slow onset); clean frozen plasma (rapid onset) How is warfarin metabolized? Hepatic cytochrome β-450 enzymes The synthesis of what components is inhibited first whilst warfarin remedy is initiated? 1. issue VII 2. Protein C (therefore sufferers may perhaps at the beginning be hypercoagulable while warfarin is first initiated) Why are issue VII and protein C inhibited first whilst warfarin remedy is initiated? those proteins have the shortest half-lives when put next to the half-lives of things II, IX, X, and protein S what's the mechanism of motion of abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban? Blockade of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor on platelets, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation what's the physiologic ligand for the glycoprotein Ilb/IIIa receptor? Fibrinogen what's the mechanism of motion of thrombolytic brokers? Conversion of plasminogen to plasmin; plasmin cleaves fibrin, thereby resulting in lysis of thrombi what's the major opposed impact of thrombolytic brokers?

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